Department of Veterinary Physiology
Department came into existence with the inception of College in 1947. MVSc and PhD degree programs in Veterinary Physiology were started for the first time
in country by this department in 1956. Department has the legacy of many stalwarts in Veterinary Physiology and as a result of their significant
contributions, prestigious Rafi Ahmad Kidwai Award and Jawahar Lal Nehru Award have been rewarded to the teachers and scientists of this Department.
Department has carried out pioneering research work in field of male and female reproduction, environmental physiology, physiology of saliva and rumen
The department has Semen Technology Laboratory which is well equipped with phase contrast microscope with camera, inverted microscope, fluorescent
microscope, osmometer, computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA) and laminar airflow etc. Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory has all the basic equipments
required for in vitro production of embryos viz. stereo-zoom microscope with camera and CTV, compound microscope with stage warmer, Inverted fluorescent
Microscope, Carbon dioxide Incubator. Experimental Livestock Unit consists of sheds for cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats and presently, there are more
than 65 Barbari goats.
In addition to the eight days training programme for internship students of BVSc& AH on goat-husbandry and semen technology, department also imparts
specialized training to field Veterinary Officers on Semen Technology and Fertility Management in cattle and buffaloes. After establishment of the Semen
Technology Laboratory, more than 300 Veterinary Officers of UP Govt. have been trained.
Under Graduate Teaching as per VCI Curriculum
|Course No.||Course Title||Credit hours|
Cardiovascular Physiology and Excretory Physiology
Respiratory, Digestive and Neurophysiology
Reproduction, Lactation, Environmental, Growth and Behaviour
Post Graduate Teaching as per ICAR Curriculum
|VPY 601||Physiology of Digestion||2+1|
|VPY 602||Cardiovascular and Respiratory
|VPY 603||Renal Physiology and Body Fluid
|VPY 605||Vitamins and Minerals in Animal
|VPY 606||Physiology of Animal Reproduction||2+1|
|VPY 607||Clinical Physiology||2+1|
|VPY 608||Neuromuscular Physiology||2+1|
|VPY 609||Chemical Bioregulation in
|VPY 610||Research Techniques in Veterinary
|VPY 691||Master’s Seminar||1+0|
|VPY 699||Master’s Research||20|
|VPY 701||Applied Physiology of Body Fluids and
|VPY 702||Physiology of Animal Behavior||2+0|
|VPY 703||Comparative Physiology of Ruminant
|VPY 704||Advances in Neuro-Endocrinology||2+1|
|VPY 705||Myophysiology and Kinesiology||2+1|
|VPY 706||Avian Physiology||2+1|
|VPY 707||Physiology of Lactation||2+1|
|VPY 708||Advances in Environmental Physiology
|VPY 709||Advances in Rumen Microbiology and
|VPY 710||Advances in Immunophysiology||2+1|
|VPY 711||Physiology of Stress||2+1|
|VPY 790||Special Problem||0+2|
|VPY 791||Doctoral Research I||1+0|
|VPY 792||Doctoral Research II||1+0|
|VPY 799||Doctoral Research||45|
RESEARCH ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT
Department of physiology is actively involved in semenology and issues related to production physiology in the scenario of climate change. The department works in collaboration with other departments of the college in advanced areas of production and reproduction physiology. In the last seven years, the department has significantly contributed in the area of sperm science as well as production physiology.
RESEARCH OUTPUT FROM DEPARTMENTAL POST GRADUATE RESEARCH
Research in the department has shown that season significantly affects the sperm features in the Barbari bucks and summer season induces more DNA damage as compared to winter and rainy seasons. With ageing the sperm exhibits more defects in terms of DNA damage and membrane integrity. The supplementation of zinc and selenium significantly increased the sperm attributes in both neat and cryopreserved semen. The supplementation also significantly reduced the DNA damage in sperms after cryopreservation. Department developed a low cost but sensitive acrosome staining Coomasie blue technique. Season significantly altered the seminal plasma protein profile and also found to be associated with variations in the sperm attributes. Segment specific characterization of epididymal sperms was carried out in terms of membrane and luminal protein. The secretory activity of the cauda increased significantly in terms of luminal proteins as compared to caput and corpus. In vitro longevity of cauda epididymal sperms indicated a faster rate of DNA damage and higher damage was reported after 24hrs of preservation. The longevity of the cauda sperms was significantly higher at 40C as compared to room temperature. Studies in the department revealed a higher resistance of sperms isolated from the cauda as compared to caput and corpus. CTC staining was carried out to study capacitation like changes in the sperms during different stages of
cryopreservation of buck sperms. Study showed significantly higher number of capacitated sperms after 24 hrs of cryopreservation. Replacement of traditional egg yolk in the extenders for cryopreservation of goat semen has been evaluated with LDL and egg yolk derived from different breeds of birds. Replacement with LDL significantly increased post thaw quality of buck semen and spermatozoa kinematics. Department has standardized CASA for motion analysis of spermatozoa of bucks and bulls. CASA is regularly in use in studying the dynamic motion parameters of spermatozoa.
RESEARCH OUTPUT FROM DEPARTMENTAL PROJECT RESEARCH
Department was having university funded projects and carried out research in the areas of reproduction, production and immune physiology. The salient achievements of the projects are outlined below.
PROJECT – 1
EFFECT OF MIST COOLING AND BATHING/WALLOWING DURING SUMMER STRESS IN
LACTATING CATTLE VIS-À-VIS BUFFALO
Funds Provided: Rs. 75,000.00
Wallowing was found to be more effective in preventing decline in milk production as compared to misting as a cooling strategy during summer months (June to July) in buffaloes. Misting was more effective in reducing serum cortisol and prolactin levels as compared to wallowing in buffaloes during summer stress. The lactating cattle (Sahiwal breed) are only little affected by summer stress however this stress may be ameliorated by either misting or bathing.
PROJECT – 2
MOLECULAR BASIS OF HOST IMMUNE RESPONSE IN MASTITIC DAIRY COWS OF
DIFFERENT PRODUCTION POTENTIAL, PARITY, AND LACTATION AND IDENTIFICATION
OF SUITABLE MARKERS FOR EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS AND
DEVELOPMENT OF THERAPEUTICS FOR MASTITIS
Funds Provided: Rs 2.46 Lacs
Cows suffering from Coliform mastitis exhibited higher apoptosis of neutrophils as compared to healthy cows in terms of membrane alterations, high mitochondrial activity and higher caspase activities. CD62L expression in both blood and milk neutrophils isolated from Coliform mastitic cows and buffaloes was significantly lower as compared to control/ healthy cows, whereas reverse trend was exhibited by CD11b. Expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 increased significantly (P< 0.05) in CM groups of cows as compared to control group. Phagocytic activity of both
blood and milk neutrophils isolated from Coliform mastitic cows and buffaloes was significantly (P< 0.05) lower as compared to control/ healthy cows. Tyrosine phosphorylation was significantly increased in both blood and milk neutrophils isolated from Coliform mastitic cows and buffaloes. Seven proteins have been identified to be tyrosine
phosphorylated in cows and buffaloes during Coliform mastitis and probably has been considered as the major proteins regulating neutrophil activation.
PROJECT – 3
MODULATION OF HOST INNATE AND ADAPTIVE IMMUNE SYSTEM AFFECTING PRODUCTION
IN SAHIWAL AND HARIANA CATTLE IN THE CHANGING CLIMATE SCENARIO
Funds Provided: Rs- 2.97 Lacs
Expression analysis of TLR2 and TLR4 during rainy season as compared to winter and summer seasons was found to be higher in blood neutrophils of Hariana and Sahiwal cows. Neutrophil in vitro phagocytic activity was
significantly higher in Hariana cows as compared to Sahiwal cows in all the three seasons. Neutrophil apoptosis was found significantly higher during peak of milk production in terms of higher transmembrane potential,
and significantly higher Caspase 3 and 7 activities. With increase in parity, neutrophil competence significantly decreased in both the breeds of cows. Neutrophil activation and functional competence in terms of tyrosine phosphorylation was found to be significantly higher in summer season as compared to winter and rainy seasons. The study reported three tyrosine phosphorylated proteins in summer as compared to winter and rainy which were reported to have the same three proteins but with lower density. The three proteins were having molecular weight of
p42, p43 and p76. Early lactation revealed a compromised neutrophil competence as compared to mid and late lactation. Neutrophil phagocytic activity was found to be significantly higher in mid lactation that is around 80 days of lactation. Comparisons of various neutrophil functional parameters revealed significantly lower neutrophil activities during early lactation as compared to mid and late lactations. Phagocytic activity was found significantly higher in mid lactation. Expression of TLR 2 and TLR4 was lowered during early lactation. Cows with higher parity showed reduced neutrophil competence as compared to low parity. Cows in early lactation revealed low neutrophil competence as compared to mid lactation. Apoptosis was found significantly higher during early lactation as compared to mid and late lactation.
PROJECT – 4
DECIPHERING THE THERMAL STRESS ASSOCIATED DEPROTAMINATION AND DNA
COMPACTION IN BULL SPERM
Funds Provided: Rs- 2.00 lac
In vitro thermal stress induces capacitation and apoptosis like changes in sperm cells and tyrosine phosphorylation was found to be a probable mechanism behind this phenomenon. High temperature induced acrosome reaction in sperm cells. In vitro thermal stress compromises fertilizing competence of sperm cells by compromising the sperm DNA compaction and deprotaminatiion. Deprotamination and other physical seminal attributes are significantly correlated with each other and compromises fertilizing competence of sperm cells. Immunolocalisation of Tyrsoine phosphorylated proteins in the sperms indicated the localization in middle piece and head. At lower temperature (Cold stress), sperms exhibited localization of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins at middle piece. Apoptosis induction in spermatozoa were seen via the classical pathway during thermal stress as evident from Annexin, TUNEL and Capase assays.
FUTURE THRUST AREAS OF RESEARCH
Another focus area of the department is studying cellular response to heat stress in goat and cow model. After isolating peripheral blood mononuclear cells, mRNA has been isolated and transcript analysis for heat shockproteins is under process. We are interested to see the variations in theexpression levels of HSPs during thermal stress and its correlation withcell physiology in regulating animal health, production and reproduction.
Currently department is focusing in the understanding of tyrosine phosphorylation pathways, stress pathways, intracellular signal transduction pathways during various types of thermal stress as well as delineating ion channels in mediating sperm functions. The department is also trying to establish protamine levels in spermatozoa and their
functional role in mediating sperm function. Department is developing suitable extenders for successful long term storage of spermatozoa.
LABORATORY: The laboratory is basically dealing with undergraduate practical and is well equipped with the instruments required for successful demonstration of practical to UG students as per the guidelines of VCI.
LABORATORY: This laboratory mostly deals with PG research work and is equipped with microscopes, ELISA reader, spectrophotometer, pH meter, flame photometer, ECG, Multi-paramonitor and hot air oven, BOD
incubator, incubator, autoclaves, automated weighing machine, gas sterilizers, water bath and laminar hoods. Department has developed facilities for measurement of heart rate and ECG of small animals.
SEMEN LABORATORY: The laboratory was established under the funding of Uttarpradesh government. The laboratory was established to impart training to field vetenarians in the modern fields of semen preservation and handling. This laboratory has already imparted trainings to more than 400 field veterinary officers and many teachers and scientists of various universities. The laboratory is well equipped with Fluorescent microscope, osmometer, zoom stereo microscopes, laminar hoods, refrigerated centrifuge, Phase contrast microscopes, automatic cooling cabinet for semen preservation, cryocans and CO2 incubator.
LABORATORY: This is a new laboratory established in the department to carry out the works related to RNA. The laboratory is equipped with RNA workstation and carries out basic works like isolation of cells, RNA and DNA to carryout molecular biological works.
PROTEOMICS LABOARTORY: This is a new laboratory established in the department to carry out the works related to proteins. The laboratory is having instruments like vertical electrophoresis unit, horizontal electrophoresis unit, semidry and tank blotting unit, shaker, rocker, tube roller and vertexer. The laboratory carries out basic works related to isolation of protein and their characterization through SDS PAGE and western blotting.
INSTRUMENTS PRESENT IN THE DEPARTMENT FOR
TEACHING AND RESEARCH:
- Fluorescent microscope (Inverted)- Nikon Eclipse TE 2000-S microscope with phase contrast : Microscope is extensively involved in fluorescent based evaluation of cells.
- CASA : With integrated BioVis Software. In routine use for the understanding of motional dynamics and differential kinematics of spermatozoa.
- Phase contrast microscope (Motic, with integrated camera): Microscope is used mostly to visualize cells in bright field with phase contrast.
- ELISA reader
- Electronic Balance
- pH meter
- Cooling Cabinet: Used for manual freezing of spermatozoa.
- Deep freeze
- Electrophoresis cum blotting assembly: We have vertical electrophoretic units for evaluation of proteins isolated from different samples. We also have semi dry as well tank module system of blotting units used for transfer and blotting of proteins.
- Refrigerated centrifuge
- BOD incubator
- Hot air oven
- Multiparameter monitor
Instruments are used by the students as well as by the faculty members for routine teaching as well as research.
The department is actively engaged in extending the knowledge to stakeholders through conducting radio talks, television presentation, preparing extension pamphlets/leaflets and participating in Kisan Mela organized by the
During last three years the departmental faculty has prepared 07 folders/leaflets, 2 technical articles, and 4 radio talks/ TV talks and actively participated in Kisan melas conducted by the University.
Apart from these, Dr. Sarvajeet Yadav, Professor and Head, Veterinary Physiology is running one extension related project entitled ‘Imparting Scientific and Technical Knowledge to Pushpalak’ funded by UPCAR with a total budget of 14.92 lacs or three years department.
MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE DEPARTMENT
- Developed suitable strategies for long term cryopreservation of goat semen.
- Standardized advanced sperm evaluation techniques (Flourometric).
- Developing alternative extender for semen cryopreservation in goats.
- Breed specific variations in semen quality and seminal protein signature in goats.
- Elucidating key signaling pathways in spermatozoa during different stressful conditions and in specific tyrosine phosphorylation pathways in buck and bull spermatozoa.