April 25, 2019
Phone: +91-0565-2471178 (O)

Pharmacology & Toxicology


Department of Veterinary Pharmacology & Toxicology

Department of Materia Medica earlier, later Pharmacology and now Pharmacology and Toxicology was established as an independent Department in 1949. It was the first department in the country to start postgraduate degree programme (MVSc) in 1962 and later PhD in 1970.

Since inception, department has been pioneer in undertaking research on indigenous plants and more than ninety plants have been screened for different pharmacological activities and toxicity potential. Some of these plants have been included in pharmaceutical formulations by certain companies. Andranchne cordifloia (Bhatoola) leaves, Acacia leucophloea (Raunja) tender leaves and pods and Naruydia medagascariensis leaves have been reported for the first time to contain quite high levels of hydrocyanic acid and responsible for toxicity in sheep and goats. Treatment of poisoning with Paspalum scorbiculatum (Kodo) was also suggested for the first time by this Department.

Studies on characterization of autonomic and autacoids receptors in goat uterus, ureter and oviduct and buffaloes uterus, ureter and oesophagus have been conducted. Tocolytic efficacy of selective b2 adrenoceptor agonists,
calcium channel blockers and non-specific smooth muscle relaxants in buffaloes was evaluated and reported to possess promising therapeutic potential for clinical use in veterinary medicine. Recently, using
pharmacological and molecular biology tools, different types of potassium channels have been characterized in buffalo uterus, involvement of different isoforms of sodium pump in regulating sheep coronary and
pulmonary arteries tone and its modulation by fatty acids has been elucidated. Further research work on functional and molecular regulation of vascular potassium channels in sepsis-induced oxidative stress in rats and modulation of myometrial spontaneity by sodium pump and endogenous nitric oxide in buffaloes is in progress.

Disposition kinetic data on ofloxacin has been generated in sheep, goats, cow and buffalo calves and neonatal cow calves to ensure its rational and safe use. For complete treatment of nematodiasis in goats, suitable dose
requirement of fenbendazole has been suggested. Flumethrine pour-on (1% w/v) was found to be very effective against Damalinia caprae infestation in goats and the single application was observed to be effective for 42 days as it prevented the re-infestation during this period. Recently, Department also reported a very rapid and simple fluorimetric assay method for estimation of ciprofloxacin in plasma. Buffalo perimetrial uterine strips has been found to be very sensitive to histamine and can be used for bioassay of histamine. Department has also published a book of “Veterinary Toxicology”.

The department is having well equipped laboratories to undertake research on neuro and autonomic pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, medicinal plants and environmental pollutants. Some of the major equipments which are available in the laboratories are data acquisition system based physiograph, Millar pressure transducer, spectrofluorometer, spectrophotometer, plethysmometer, hot-cold plate, analgesiometer, aggressometer, pole
climbing apparatus, rota-rod, soxhlet apparatus, rotary vacuum evaporator, BOD incubator, biosafety cabinet etc. Further, CIL with sophisticated equipments like HPLC, Atomic absorption spectrophotometer and several
others has further improved the scope for hands on training students to postgraduate students.

Department has an excellent organizational capacity. Recent successful organization of VIII ISVPT conference in November 2008 is testimony to the capability and strength of Department; and in coming six months, Department will be organizing two training programmes of six days duration each for imparting hands on training to postgraduate students and young faculty members from other Departments of the country.



a. ICAR Niche Area of Excellence PROGRAMME (2011-12) : Rs. 467.00 lacs

b. Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana Project (2010-11) : Rs. 125.00 lacs

c. ICAR Outreach Programme on Ethnoveterinary Medicine  (2009-10): Rs. 80.00 lacs


a. Several research papers published in International journals of repute have citations in different books of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Medicine published by IOWA State University Press, IOWA, Butterworth Heinemann, Boston, Book Power formerly ELST with Saunders.

b. Research paper on “Cellular coupling of potassium channels with beta2 adrenoceptors in mediating myometrial relaxation in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)” authored by Soumen Choudhury et al.,  published in Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. [2010, 33(1):22-7] cited in

a. “Membrane Glycoproteins: Advances in Research and Application” (2011) published by Scholarly Editions, Atalnta, Georgia.

b. “Issues in Veterinary Practices and Specialties” ( 2011) published by Scholarly Editions, Editor: Q Ashton Acton, (ISBN: 978-1-464-96586-9)

Research paper on “Eicosapentaenoic acid-induced endothelium-dependent and –independent relaxation of sheep pulmonary artery” authored by Thakur uttam Singh et al., published in European Journal of Pharmacology(Cardiovascular Pharmacology), 636:108-113 cited in

a. Nitrogen Oxides: Advances in Research and Application (2011) Q. Ashton Acton (Ed). Scholarly Editions, Atalnta, Georgia.

b. Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Cardiovascular Disease (2012). Ronald Ross Watson, Victor R. Preedy
(Ed). Academic Press, San Diego, USA. (ISBN 978-0-12-396-485-4)


S. No. Application No. Title
1 2539/DEL/2012 16/08/2012 Novel herbal oxytocic for treatment of uterine
inertia in animals
2 103/DEL/2014 15/01/2014 Novel herbal antimicrobial gel (DUVATOP-G) for
3 2642/DEL/2014
Non-estrogenized and consistent rat uterus model
for pharmacodynamic studies on myometrium of cyclic rats
4 839/DEL/2015 26/03/2015 Novel herbal capsule (Pyodermacare-G) for treatment
of bacterial and mycotic dermatitis in canines


a. Pharmacological and molecular characterization of ion channels and various receptors and their down-stream signaling pathways in buffalo myometrium;

b. Elucidation of downstream signalling pathway(s) to membrane receptor(s) and ion channels involved in uterotonic and tocolytic effects of heavy-metals on buffalo and rat myometrium;

c. Biomonitoring of metallic environmental pollutants in soil, water and plants and also blood of cows and buffaloes;

d. Effect of heavy metals and agrochemicals on biotransformation enzymes;

e. Ameliorative potential of medicinal plants against heavy metals and agrochemicals;

f. Pharmacokinetics of antibacterial and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in ruminants;

g. Pharmacology of Indigenous medicinal plants and development of herbal drug formulations against common ailments of milch and pet animals.


a. Rapid, simple and consistent spectrofluorometric assay method for estimation of ciprofloxacin in blood;

b. Myometrial preparations from buffalo uterus for demonstration of the effects of oxytocics, tocolytics, adrenoceptor and muscarinic receptor agonsits, and demonstration of the effect of various potassium channel openers, blockers and different calcium regulatory/signalling pathways;

c. A simple extractionless reverse phase HPLC method for detection and quantification of cypermethrin in rat plasma

d. A simple extractionless reverse phase HPLC method for detection and quantification of flubendiamide in rat plasma

e. Novel non-medicated experimental model for pharmacodynamic studies on rat myometrium


a. The transcript sequence of alpha subunit of maxi potassium channels of 1097 bp length (NCBI EU816373) and ~100 kDA protein in non-pregnant buffalo myometrium.

b. The transcript sequence of histamine H1 receptors 311 bp length (NCBI KJ150294) and 57 kDA protein in non-pregnant buffalo myometrium.

c. Molecular characterization of H2 histaminergic receptors and TRP ion channels in buffalo myometrium.

d. Molecular characterization of alpha subunit of Na+-K+-ATPase (110 kDA) in sheep pulmonary artery and modulation of alpha subunit of Na+-K+-ATPase by fatty acids in ovine pulmonary and coronary arteries.

e. Vasodilator activity of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in 5-HT contracted ovine pulmonary and coronary arteries.

f. The cellular coupling of beta2-adrenoceptors with potassium channels especially KATP and BKCa in non-pregnant
buffalo myometrium.

g. Elucidation of extracellular and intracellular calcium and downstream calcium signaling cascades in histamine, oxytocin and prostaglandin-induced myometrial contraction in non-pregnant and pregnant buffaloes.

h. Elucidation of calcium-depending and calcium-mimicking response of lead on buffalo myometrium

i. Bio-monitoring of heavy metals in feed/fodder and soil in Mathura district revealed presence of high levels of arsenic, cadmium and lead and health risk index showed that vegetation in the district does not seem to be safe for human and animal consumption.

j. Blood lead levels in cows and buffaloes in and around Mathura were higher than the permissible limits

k. Augmentation of α1-adrenergic response in rats portal vein following 12 weeks exposure to lead @ 2700 ppm due to increased responsiveness of receptors along with augmented release of neurotransmitters from nerve endings.

l. Arsenic in combination with deltamethrin potentiated oxidative stress while in combination with chlorpyrifos, intensity was lower than their individual effects.

m. Arsenic and chlorpyrifos in combination significantly decreased the activity of phase I and phase II biotransformation enzymes.

n. Ameliorative potential of Withania somnifera root extract (WRE) against lead-induced augmentation of alpha1 adrenoceptors possibly by regulating catecholamines release from nerve endings.

o. Withania somnifera roots extract and Moringa oleifera leaves extract showed promising ameliorative property
against arsenic- and deltamethrin-induced toxicity.

p. Pharmacokinetic data of ofloxacin and meloxicam in yaks and cattle following different routes of drug administration and computation of rational dosage regimens for these species of animals.



  • Molecular Pharmacology Laboratory
  • Cardiovascular Pharmacology Laboratory
  • Smooth Muscle Pharmacology Laboratory
  • Ethnopharmacology Laboratory
  • Microbial Assay Laboratory
  • HPLC Laboratory
  • GC-MS Laboratory
  • Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer Laboratory
  • Neuropharmacology Laboratory
  • Pharmacokinetic Laboratory
  • Biochemical Pharmacology & Toxicology Laboratory
  • Fluorescent Microscopy Laboratory

The department is having well equipped laboratories with major equipments/instruments like:

1. Data acquisition system based physiograph

2. Millar pressure transducer

3. Spectrofluorometer

4. Plethysmometer

5. Hot-cold plate

6. Analgesiometer

7. Aggressometer

8. Pole climbing apparatus

9. Rota-rod

10. Soxhlet apparatus

11. Rotary vacuum evaporator

12. BOD incubator

13. Biosafety cabinet etc

14. Lyophilizer

15. Capsule and tablet punching machine

16. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

17. Myograph

18. Fluoride Meter

19. Fluorescent Microscope

20. Nanodrop

21. Microdigestion system

Further, CIL with sophisticated equipments like

1. High Performance Liquid Chromatography

2. Atomic Absorption Spectrometer

3. Spectrophotometer

4. Thermocycler

5. Gel Documentation System

6. ELISA reader

7. Ice Flaking Machine



Ram Lal Agarwal National Award (2014) for outstanding research work on indigenous medicinal plants (Prof Satish K.Garg and Dr Chandrabhan Bharshiv)

Ram Lal Agarwal National Award (2011) for outstanding research work on indigenous medicinal plants (Prof Satish K. Garg, Rajesh Mandil and Dr M. Jayanthi)

Jawahar Lal Nehru Award of ICAR (2010) for best PhD Thesis entitled “Molecular characterization of Na+-K+-ATPase isoforms and their modulation by fatty lipids in ovine pulmonary and coronary arteries”

Prof. Natarajan Young Scientist Award (2013)  to a MVSc student

Prof. V.V. Ranade Young Scientist Award (2008) to a PhD student

Best Poster Presentation Awards of ISVPT – 2001, 2002, 2009, 2012, 2014

DBT and CSIR, Govt. of India  2009 Foreign Travel Grant for attending the 46th Congress of European Societies of Toxicology held at Dresden, Germany (Dr Atul Prakash, Assistant Professor)


ICAR Sponsored Best Teacher Award of the University (2012) to Prof. Satish Kumar Garg, Professor and Head Best Teacher Award of the University (2004) to Prof. Satish Kumar Garg, Professor and Head


Dr. Satish K. Garg, Professor & Head, President of Society of Toxicology (2014-2016).

Dr. Satish K. Garg, Professor & Head, Secretary General of Society of Toxicology (1999-2001 and 2001- 2003).
Dr. Satish Kumar Garg, Professor and Head Secretary General of Indian Society of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology (2003-2005, 2005-2007)


Veterinary Toxicology (2000) by Satish Kumar Garg. CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.

Chapter in the book entitled Selected Topics on Camelids by Satish Kumar Garg. (T.K. Gahlot, Editor). First Edition. Camelid Publishers, Bikaner.

Chapters in the book entitled “Text Book of Veterinary Pharmacology  & Therapeutics” (B.K Roy, editor). First Edition Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana/New Delhi.

Satish K. Garg and M. Sabir (2004). Nature of adrenoceptors in myometrium of ruminants – an update. In: Reproductive Biology by R Mathur, Asha Mathur and Sangeeta Shukla (eds). Deep and Deep Publications Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.


S. No. Title
Annual Conference of Indian Society of Veterinary Pharmacology
and Toxicology (ISVPT) and National Symposia on Challenges,
scientific validation and IPR Protection of indigenous medicinal
plants based ITK and Emerging risks to wildlife due to drugs and
toxicants and ameliorative measures ” (November 6-8, 2008)
2 Pre-Conference
Workshop (Wet Lab) on “Canine echocardiography and telemetry”
accredited by AVMA for CE credits with
100% resource persons from USA (February 15-16, 2011).
3 IV International Conference of
Laboratory Animals Scientists Association (LASA) on  “The Challenges ahead”
(February 17-18, 2011)
4 National
Seminar on “Livestock Policy for National Food and Nutritional
Security in the   of
WTO Regulations” and 11th Annual Convocation of
National Academy of Veterinary Sciences (India) (November 2-3,
5 33rd
Annual Conference of Society of Toxicology (India) and national
symposia on —–  (October
23-25, 2013).
6 Hands
on training on “Use of Data Acquisition System Based Physiograph
in Pharmacodynamic Studies” under ICAR Niche Area of excellence
Programme (March 9-13, 2015)