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Physiology

Department of Veterinary Physiology

Department came into existence with the inception of College in 1947. MVSc and PhD degree programs in Veterinary Physiology were started for the first time
in country by this department in 1956. Department has the legacy of many stalwarts in Veterinary Physiology and as a result of their significant
contributions, prestigious Rafi Ahmad Kidwai Award and Jawahar Lal Nehru Award have been rewarded to the teachers and scientists of this Department.
Department has carried out pioneering research work in field of male and female reproduction, environmental physiology, physiology of saliva and rumen
micro-flora.

The department has Semen Technology Laboratory which is well equipped with phase contrast microscope with camera, inverted microscope, fluorescent
microscope, osmometer, computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA) and laminar airflow etc. Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory has all the basic equipments
required for in vitro production of embryos viz. stereo-zoom microscope with camera and CTV, compound microscope with stage warmer, Inverted fluorescent
Microscope, Carbon dioxide Incubator. Experimental Livestock Unit consists of sheds for cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats and presently, there are more
than 65 Barbari goats.

In addition to the eight days training programme for internship students of BVSc& AH on goat-husbandry and semen technology, department also imparts
specialized training to field Veterinary Officers on Semen Technology and Fertility Management in cattle and buffaloes. After establishment of the Semen
Technology Laboratory, more than 300 Veterinary Officers of UP Govt. have been trained.

Under Graduate Teaching
as per VCI Curriculum

Course No.

Course Title

Credit hours

VPB 111

Blood,
Cardiovascular Physiology and Excretory Physiology

2+1

VPB 121

Neuromuscular,
Respiratory, Digestive and Neurophysiology

2+1

VPB 221

Endocrinology,
Reproduction, Lactation, Environmental, Growth and Behaviour
Physiology

3+1

Post
Graduate
Teaching as per ICAR Curriculum

M.V.Sc.

VPY 601

Physiology of Digestion

2+1

VPY 602

Cardiovascular and Respiratory
Physiology

2+1

VPY 603

Renal Physiology and Body Fluid
Dynamics

2+1

VPY 604

Haematology

2+1

VPY 605

Vitamins and Minerals in Animal
Physiology

2+0

VPY 606

Physiology of Animal Reproduction

2+1

VPY 607

Clinical Physiology

2+1

VPY 608

Neuromuscular Physiology

2+1

VPY 609

Chemical Bioregulation in
Physiological Functions

3+0

VPY 610

Research Techniques in Veterinary
Physiology

0+2

VPY 691

Master’s Seminar

1+0

VPY 699

Master’s Research

20

Ph.D.

VPY 701

Applied Physiology of Body Fluids and
Electrolytes

2+1

VPY 702

Physiology of Animal Behavior

2+0

VPY 703

Comparative Physiology of Ruminant
Digestion

2+1

VPY 704

Advances in Neuro-Endocrinology

2+1

VPY 705

Myophysiology and Kinesiology

2+1

VPY 706

Avian Physiology

2+1

VPY 707

Physiology of Lactation

2+1

VPY 708

Advances in Environmental Physiology
and Growth

2+1

VPY 709

Advances in Rumen Microbiology and
Metabolism

2+1

VPY 710

Advances in Immunophysiology

2+1

VPY 711

Physiology of Stress

2+1

VPY 790

Special Problem

0+2

VPY 791

Doctoral Research I

1+0

VPY 792

Doctoral Research II

1+0

VPY 799

Doctoral Research

45

RESEARCH
ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT

    Department of physiology is actively involved in
semenology and issues related to production physiology in the scenario of
climate change. The department works in collaboration with other
departments of the college in advanced areas of production and
reproduction physiology. In the last seven years, the department has
significantly contributed in the area of sperm science as well as
production physiology.
RESEARCH OUTPUT FROM DEPARTMENTAL POST
GRADUATE RESEARCH

    Research in the department has shown that season
significantly affects the sperm features in the Barbari bucks and summer
season induces more DNA damage as compared to winter and rainy seasons.
With ageing the sperm exhibits more defects in terms of DNA damage and
membrane integrity.
    The supplementation of zinc and selenium significantly
increased the sperm attributes in both neat and cryopreserved semen. The
supplementation also significantly reduced the DNA damage in sperms after
cryopreservation. Department developed a low cost but sensitive acrosome
staining Coomasie blue technique. Season significantly altered the seminal
plasma protein profile and also found to be associated with variations in
the sperm attributes.
    Segment specific characterization of epididymal sperms
was carried out in terms of membrane and luminal protein. The secretory
activity of the cauda increased significantly in terms of luminal proteins
as compared to caput and corpus. In vitro longevity of cauda epididymal
sperms indicated a faster rate of DNA damage and higher damage was
reported after 24hrs of preservation. The longevity of the cauda sperms
was significantly higher at 40C as compared to room temperature. Studies
in the department revealed a higher resistance of sperms isolated from the
cauda as compared to caput and corpus. CTC staining was carried out to
study capacitation like changes in the sperms during different stages of
cryopreservation of buck sperms. Study showed significantly higher number
of capacitated sperms after 24 hrs of cryopreservation.
    Replacement of traditional egg yolk in the extenders
for cryopreservation of goat semen has been evaluated with LDL and egg
yolk derived from different breeds of birds. Replacement with LDL
significantly increased post thaw quality of buck semen and spermatozoa
kinematics. Department has standardized CASA for motion analysis of
spermatozoa of bucks and bulls. CASA is regularly in use in studying the
dynamic motion parameters of spermatozoa.
RESEARCH OUTPUT FROM DEPARTMENTAL PROJECT
RESEARCH

    Department was having university funded projects and
carried out research in the areas of reproduction, production and immune
physiology. The salient achievements of the projects are outlined below.
PROJECT 1
EFFECT OF MIST COOLING AND BATHING/WALLOWING DURING SUMMER STRESS IN
LACTATING CATTLE VIS-À-VIS BUFFALO
Funds Provided: Rs. 75,000.00
    Wallowing was found to be more effective in preventing
decline in milk production as compared to misting as a cooling strategy
during summer months (June to July) in buffaloes. Misting was more
effective in reducing serum cortisol and prolactin levels as compared to
wallowing in buffaloes during summer stress. The lactating cattle (Sahiwal
breed) are only little affected by summer stress however this stress may
be ameliorated by either misting or bathing.
PROJECT 2
MOLECULAR BASIS OF HOST IMMUNE RESPONSE IN MASTITIC DAIRY COWS OF
DIFFERENT PRODUCTION POTENTIAL, PARITY, AND LACTATION AND IDENTIFICATION
OF SUITABLE MARKERS FOR EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS AND
DEVELOPMENT OF THERAPEUTICS FOR MASTITIS
Funds Provided: Rs 2.46 Lacs
Cows suffering from Coliform mastitis exhibited higher apoptosis of
neutrophils as compared to healthy cows in terms of membrane alterations,
high mitochondrial activity and higher caspase activities. CD62L
expression in both blood and milk neutrophils isolated from Coliform
mastitic cows and buffaloes was significantly lower as compared to 
control/ healthy cows, whereas reverse trend was exhibited by CD11b.
Expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 increased significantly (P< 0.05) in CM groups of cows as compared to control group. Phagocytic activity of both blood and milk neutrophils isolated from Coliform mastitic cows and buffaloes was significantly (P< 0.05) lower as compared to control/ healthy cows. Tyrosine phosphorylation was significantly increased in both blood and milk neutrophils isolated from Coliform mastitic cows and buffaloes. Seven proteins have been identified to be tyrosine phosphorylated in cows and buffaloes during Coliform mastitis and probably has been considered as the major proteins regulating neutrophil activation.
PROJECT 3
MODULATION OF HOST INNATE AND ADAPTIVE IMMUNE SYSTEM AFFECTING PRODUCTION
IN SAHIWAL AND HARIANA CATTLE IN THE CHANGING CLIMATE SCENARIO
Funds Provided: Rs- 2.97 Lacs
Expression analysis of TLR2 and TLR4 during rainy season as compared to
winter and summer seasons was found to be higher in blood neutrophils of
Hariana and Sahiwal cows. Neutrophil in vitro phagocytic activity was
significantly higher in Hariana cows as compared to Sahiwal cows in all
the three seasons. Neutrophil apoptosis was found significantly higher
during peak of milk production in terms of higher transmembrane potential,
and significantly higher Caspase 3 and 7 activities.
With increase in parity, neutrophil competence significantly decreased in
both the breeds of cows. Neutrophil activation and functional competence
in terms of tyrosine phosphorylation was found to be significantly higher
in summer season as compared to winter and rainy seasons. The study
reported three tyrosine phosphorylated proteins in summer as compared to
winter and rainy which were reported to have the same three proteins but
with lower density. The three proteins were having molecular weight of
p42, p43 and p76.
Early lactation revealed a compromised neutrophil competence as compared
to mid and late lactation. Neutrophil phagocytic activity was found to be
significantly higher in mid lactation that is around 80 days of lactation.
Comparisons of various neutrophil functional parameters revealed
significantly lower neutrophil activities during early lactation as
compared to mid and late lactations. Phagocytic activity was found
significantly higher in mid lactation. Expression of TLR 2 and TLR4 was
lowered during early lactation. Cows with higher parity showed reduced
neutrophil competence as compared to low parity. Cows in early lactation
revealed low neutrophil competence as compared to mid lactation. Apoptosis
was found significantly higher during early lactation as compared to mid
and late lactation.

PROJECT 4
DECIPHERING THE THERMAL STRESS ASSOCIATED DEPROTAMINATION AND DNA
COMPACTION IN BULL SPERM
Funds Provided: Rs- 2.00 lac
In vitro thermal stress induces capacitation and apoptosis like changes in
sperm cells and tyrosine phosphorylation was found to be a probable
mechanism behind this phenomenon. High temperature induced acrosome
reaction in sperm cells. In vitro thermal stress compromises fertilizing
competence of sperm cells by compromising the sperm DNA compaction and
deprotaminatiion. Deprotamination and other physical seminal attributes
are significantly correlated with each other and compromises fertilizing
competence of sperm cells. Immunolocalisation of Tyrsoine phosphorylated
proteins in the sperms indicated the localization in middle piece and
head. At lower temperature (Cold stress), sperms exhibited localization of
tyrosine phosphorylated proteins at middle piece. Apoptosis induction in
spermatozoa were seen via the classical pathway during thermal stress as
evident from Annexin, TUNEL and Capase assays.

FUTURE THRUST AREAS OF RESEARCH
Another focus area of the department is studying cellular response to heat
stress in goat and cow model. After isolating peripheral blood mononuclear
cells, mRNA has been isolated and transcript analysis for heat shock
proteins is under process. We are interested to see the variations in the
expression levels of HSPs during thermal stress and its correlation with
cell physiology in regulating animal health, production and reproduction.

Currently department is focusing in the understanding of tyrosine
phosphorylation pathways, stress pathways, intracellular signal
transduction pathways during various types of thermal stress as well as
delineating ion channels in mediating sperm functions. The department is
also trying to establish protamine levels in spermatozoa and their
functional role in mediating sperm function. Department is developing
suitable extenders for successful long term storage of spermatozoa.

Faculty Members

Name

Designation Qualification Email Contact No. View
Dr. S. J. Yadav Professor & Head Ph D yadav_s24@yahoo.com +919412485717

Dr. Jitender Kumar Associate Professor Ph D drjkverma@gmail.com +919410810873

Dr. Arun Kumar Madan Associate Professor Ph D akumarmadan@yahoo.com +919412550680

Dr. Brijesh Yadav Assistant Professor PhD drbrijvet@gmail.com +919411006534

Dr. Mukul Annad Assistant Professor MVSc drmukulanandvet@gmail.com +919457654888

Dr. Dilip Kumar Swain Assistant Professor Ph D dlp.swain@gmail.com +919410272590,







UNDERGRADUATE
LABORATORY:
The laboratory is basically dealing with
undergraduate practical and is well equipped with the instruments required
for successful demonstration of practical to UG students as per the
guidelines of VCI.

POSTGRTADUATE
LABORATORY:
This laboratory mostly deals with PG research work
and is equipped with microscopes, ELISA reader, spectrophotometer, pH
meter, flame photometer, ECG, Multi-paramonitor and hot air oven, BOD
incubator, incubator, autoclaves, automated weighing machine, gas
sterilizers, water bath and laminar hoods. Department has developed
facilities for measurement of heart rate and ECG of small animals.

HI-TECH
SEMEN LABORATORY:
The laboratory was established under the
funding of Uttarpradesh government. The laboratory was established to
impart training to field vetenarians in the modern fields of semen
preservation and handling. This laboratory has already imparted trainings
to more than 400 field veterinary officers and many teachers and
scientists of various universities. The laboratory is well equipped with
Fluorescent microscope, osmometer, zoom stereo microscopes, laminar hoods,
refrigerated centrifuge, Phase contrast microscopes, automatic cooling
cabinet for semen preservation, cryocans and CO2 incubator.

RNA
LABORATORY:
This is a new laboratory established in the
department to carry out the works related to RNA. The laboratory is
equipped with RNA workstation and carries out basic works like isolation
of cells, RNA and DNA to carryout molecular biological works.

MINI
PROTEOMICS LABOARTORY:
This is a new laboratory established in
the department to carry out the works related to proteins. The laboratory
is having instruments like vertical electrophoresis unit, horizontal
electrophoresis unit, semidry and tank blotting unit, shaker, rocker, tube
roller and vertexer. The laboratory carries out basic works related to
isolation of protein and their characterization through SDS PAGE and
western blotting.

INSTRUMENTS PRESENT IN THE DEPARTMENT FOR
TEACHING AND RESEARCH:

  • Fluorescent microscope (Inverted)- Nikon Eclipse TE 2000-S microscope
    with phase contrast : Microscope is extensively involved in fluorescent
    based evaluation of cells.
  • CASA : With integrated BioVis Software. In routine use for the
    understanding of motional dynamics and differential kinematics of
    spermatozoa.
  • Phase contrast microscope (Motic, with integrated camera): Microscope
    is used mostly to visualize cells in bright field with phase contrast.
  • Osmometer
  • ELISA reader
  • Electronic Balance
  • pH meter
  • Spectrophotometer
  • Cooling Cabinet: Used for manual freezing of spermatozoa.
  • Deep freeze
  • Electrophoresis cum blotting assembly: We have vertical
    electrophoretic units for evaluation of proteins isolated from different
    samples. We also have semi dry as well tank module system of blotting
    units used for transfer and blotting of proteins.
  • Refrigerated centrifuge
  • BOD incubator
  • Hot air oven
  • Incubator
  • Cryocans
  • ECG
  • Multiparameter monitor

Instruments are used by the students as well as by the faculty members
for routine teaching as well as research.


MAJOR
ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE DEPARTMENT

  • Developed suitable strategies for long term cryopreservation of goat
    semen.
  • Standardized advanced sperm evaluation techniques (Flourometric).
  • Developing alternative extender for semen cryopreservation in goats.
  • Breed specific variations in semen quality and seminal protein
    signature in goats.
  • Elucidating key signaling pathways in spermatozoa during different
    stressful conditions and in specific tyrosine phosphorylation pathways
    in buck and bull spermatozoa.







Extension

    The department is
actively engaged in extending the knowledge to stakeholders through
conducting radio talks, television presentation, preparing extension
pamphlets/leaflets and participating in Kisan Mela organized by the
University.

    During last three years
the departmental faculty has prepared 07 folders/leaflets, 2 technical
articles, and 4 radio talks/ TV talks and actively participated in Kisan
melas conducted by the University.

    Apart from these, Dr.
Sarvajeet Yadav, Professor and Head, Veterinary Physiology is running one
extension related project entitled ‘Imparting Scientific and Technical
Knowledge to Pushpalak’ funded by UPCAR with a total budget of 14.92 lacs
for three years department.

Download
the list of folders/ leaflets/ popular articles (Last three
years)